Cosmos~flower 2 – moving beyond ‘wild’ flowers

Part Two – Moving beyond ‘Wild’ flowers.

(This is draft material which i prepared before setting out on the present (May 2017) road trip to Central Australia. Thought it might be of interest to others – and thanks to  Port Augusta Public Library for the wifi.

We visited the Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden while in Port Augusta to see their comprehensive collection of Eremopholia. It was pleasing to see that they include some indigenous names on the signs for some of the Eremophila on display. Will upload some pics later as i just exceeded my daily quota.)

For me the profound poetry of this country – life’s true poetry – is to be found in First Peoples Dreaming stories.

Keeping in mind my central problem raised in Part One  – what is the next step – I was surprised to find myself on an imaginary trip to Central Australia (now a real trip!)

When I got home from my walk in the Royal National Park I was looking for a book about local Koori stories and flowers when I came across a heavy duty anthropological book I have had for a long time and not read. I thought it was about time I justified to myself buying it and opened it to have a read.

“The Native Tribes of Central Australia” by Spencer and Gillen opened at a page which referred to a red flowering plant from Central Australia and its significance to Arrernte people. And away we go …

In their account of an important Arrernte (Aranda) initiation ceremony, Spencer and Gillen noted the words of an important fire song “Atnylinga etunja illa althara wuntama”  which is repeated “… over and over again.” (S&G 1899 – 1969:238).

Spencer and Gillen mention “Atnylinga is the red flower of a species of Eremophila, which, in the Alcheringa, was made red with much burning.” (Spencer and Gillen 1899 1969:238). This plant plays an important part in the initiation ceremonies which mark passage into male adulthood.

Spencer and Gillen do not, as far as I can see, a record the particular species of Eremophila.

“Eremophila” is (obviously) a non-Arrernte label for a large group of plants which means ‘desert loving’. In true Lévi-Straussian pensée sauvage fashion it has social parallels as well which I do not explore here – except to note that amongst desert loving First Peoples daily life requires the emphasis has to be on the need for collective enterprise rather than individual escape.

Spencer’s earlier involvement in the 1894 Horn expedition to Central Australia – he edited the 4 volumes of the reports, one of which was devoted to plants – would make him well placed to identify Eremophila, even if he does not specify which one of the 180 or so species (Jessop 1981:339)

G.S. Richmond has written a review (1993) of the uses of Eremophila (Myoporaceae) by this country’s First Peoples.  Along with many other uses, Richmond notes:

Eremophila species have played a role in the ceremonial life of Aboriginal people … Of all the species utilized, E. longifolia appears to be of special important for Central Australian Aborigines, and is considered to be the most sacred and mystical of all Central Australian plants (Latz 1982) …”

Richmond mentions, in this E. longifolia context, initiation ceremonies witnessed by Spencer and Gillen.

“The leaves and branches were used in elaborate circumcision rites where small sprigs were placed in headbands and armbands of the novices. Dances were performed … This event was followed by singing for several hours and then the young men allotted for initiation were decorated with twigs and leaves which were placed in their headbands. This material was known as wetta, and would be worn until the end of the ceremony…” (Richmond 1993:104)

Pastor Carl Strehlow, working with Western Arrarnta people at Ntaria – Hermannsburg mission –  at the turn of the previous century also recorded a Dreaming narrative which mentions a Dreaming precedent along these lines. ‘47.  Die tnurungata [Larven]-Manner’ (1907:216-218).

In that story, the full details of which may be restricted to initiated men, we learn that these Dreaming ancestors placed tnurunga-Zwieige (twigs?) in their Gurtel (waistbelts) Armbander (armbands) and Haar (hair) before they transformed into sacred objects at Emily Gap (Anthwerrke) just outside of the present town of Alice Springs – Mparntwe.

Carl Strehlow footnotes (5) that ‘tnurungatja, eine gross, gelbe Larvenart, die sich an tnurunga-Buschen findet’.

‘tnurungatja is a large species of larvae found on tnurunga bushes’ (Google Translate)

Chewings, who made an English translation which was never published, translates ‘Larven’ as ‘grub’ but I feel this does not do just to the original, especially as we explore both the amazing transformational characteristics of larvae and their significance in First Peoples lives. (What term did Spencer and Gillen use?) More on this soon.

We learn, from the Introductory Dictionary of Western Arrernte (Gavin Breen and E Rubuntja, G Armstrong 2000:56 IAD Press):

(copy missing?)

Carl Strehlow’s ‘tnurungatja’ is clearly ‘tnwerrenge’ and ‘tnurungatja’ is clearly ‘tnwerrengatye’ in this more recent orthography.

Carl Strehlow mentions they came from Ulaterka – (He gives Ula = forehead and terka = green = green forehead) which lies westerly from Mount Sonder (Mt Ziel in one account). Urlatherrke.

The Eastern and Central Arrernte to English Dictionary (Henderson and Dodson 1994 IAD Press) says,

  1. under ‘forehead’ ‘urle’ and note “’Traditionally, it can be offensive to men for a woman to talk directly about a man’s forehead.” (page 596)
  2. and, to account for the difference between yellow and green caterpillars,  under ‘green’: “a colour that includes green and some shades of yellow and blue …. Atherrke ‘ (page 686 – main entry p 302). It also refers to grass, and, as merne atherrke (b) ‘edible leaf parts of plants; leaf vegetables such as spinach and lettuce.’.

Caterpillars are great examples of creatures which, firstly, devote one stage of their life to this activity – leaf eaters par excellence with great appetites – and, secondly, undergo a remarkable transformation in which their first larval body is converted to nutrients for a second set of genes – and flight!

Working with ‘concrete logic’ (a la Levi-Strauss) they are not only ripe for eating but also ripe for thinking. First Peoples make great use of empirical qualities to represent abstract concepts.

These ‘grubs’ and caterpillars play a highly significant role in the Dreaming dimensions of landscape and in the social and ceremonial life of Arrernte people in the Alice Springs- Mparntwe area. It will be good to draw this out a bit later – maybe when we are Mparntwe.

In Aranda Traditions (1947, reprint 1968) TGH Strehlow provides:

“tnuruŋa (Eremophila species, a shrub or tree whose leaves and branches find extensive ceremonial use. … Small twigs are stuck under the headbands and armbands of novices …”

Meggitt recorded how, during a Warlpiri initiation ceremony:

“During the singing, the guardian (his brother-in-law) frequently brushes the boy’s head with the leaves of Eremophila longifolia, the badge of the novice among the Warlpiri. This action closes the lad’s mind to everything but the songs, the “strength” (but not the meaning) of which he now absorbs.” (Meggitt 1962 reprint 1984  287)

And here we run into something of a full stop since the songs which the young man will learn contain some of the metaphors which are required for connecting Being to Cosmos.

We ourselves are not involved in this initiation process, and lack both the language, culture and knowledge of country which are presumed by the initiation practices.

 But more important than a limitation on our knowing is the realization that, for that young man (and all like him), these matters inform the core of his Being. He is born into a cosmos where he is a living reincarnation of these Dreaming forebears – and this a part of a much larger configuration of similarly signified Beings.

Core identity – Being is signified by the same process in which country is signified – share a common fate.

These Dreaming dimensions of life are denied by modern cultural notions of ‘reality’.

Can the naming conventions of modern botany ever assist us to connect to our surroundings in such a high transcendental way? We may need poets as well, Professor.

In contrast to the very high significance placed upon it by First Peoples, it is curious that, in reading European accounts of the flora of Central Australia, Eremophila longifolia does not rate much of a mention. Emu Bush and Poverty Bush is sometimes mentioned, with those terms seemingly used in a generic sense as well.

An overview of historical process by which the flora of Central Australia was documented by botanists and explorers etc is covered by J H Willis in Jessop (editor-in-chief).

The focus on what is ‘new to science’ slowly gave way to looking at other aspects of plants, such as their relations to their habitats and, in some cases, their uses by First Peoples. (Willis, in Jessop xvii).

Even the contemporary account “Vegetation of Central Australia” by J S Beard in Jessop concludes with discussion of the effects of soils as viewed from a chemical perspective to account for two major differences to be found in the Australian desert flora.

While this is as it should be, no doubt, the point I am trying to work towards is that there is no real space, in the Western conceptual apparatus at work in the field of botany, for consideration of indigenous ‘metaphysical’ systems of signification of these ‘same’ plants.

Despite the fact that the scientific familiarity with the flora of Central Australia may span, say, over 150 years or so, it is carried out within a narrow range of expert opinions of what is to count as being worthy of investigation and what is to be deemed significant within that ‘enclosed’ community of interest.

The fact that First Peoples in these areas had, at least, thousands of years of intimate contact and a profound knowledge of these ‘same’ plants was not a key feature of the process of scientific documentation.

The possibility that some plants might be ‘sacred’ and ‘mystical’ (to use that form of words) had no room in modern scientific enquiry.

To make it socially in the academic world where such botanical matters were of keen interest you had to look to ‘nature’ as defined by Western master narratives.

Clearly, from First Peoples perspectives, ‘nature’ was a lesser means of interpreting experience in contrast to the high culture concerns of life within a cosmic context.

We are dealing with cosmos, not Western notions of ‘nature’. There are no ‘wild’ plants in a fully cultured cosmos. We need a new terminology. This is a cultural challenge for interested conceptual craftworkers. A whole lot more work-play is required, especially in a spirit of cultural partnership with First Peoples.

The ‘red burning’ mentioned in the Arrernte song is, in all probability, connected with events in the ‘Alcheringa’ such comparable to the Warumungu great conflagration Bush-fire which transformed life in the Beginning. [Warumungu Arapunji and Aranda Urapantji are connected].

If this is correct in the Arrernta case, Atnylinga – as opposed to ‘raw’ nature –  is well and truly ‘cooked’.

By an unexpected path, to do with otherwise insignificant plants known as Emu Bush, and Poverty Bush, to the core of a sacred process.

The fact that we have been lead to Arrernte ceremonies is striking to me since, in my view, the practices found in the hard desert country of the Centre have always struck me as those which adopt a sort of spiritual high-ground in contrast to easier ways of life found on the coast. It is as though, living in a harsh environment, people in the Centre specialised in metaphysical practices, the high-quality products of which are exchanged as life-messages with other peoples.

Certainly when you are alive to these matters, Being in the Centre has a transcendental humm and buzz to it. Lacking the appropriate cultural metaphors, we can yearn to connect – but are unable to take the next step.

D.H. Lawrence, who stayed briefly in Thirroul, wrote about this in another context – describing us as being akin to spiritual amputees. I like to think we are more like lizards – who can regrow a shed tail – or like snakes – who can shed their old constricting skin and emerge with vivid new skin fresh to the world again.

 

Cosmos~flower 1 – Part One

 

START – ROYAL NATIONAL PARK – YEARNING TO BELONG

 

Sometimes, for exercise purposes, i walk back from a shack at Era, in the Royal National Park (South of Sydney) to a train station at Otford. Not just an exercise of the body but a gentle massage of the mind as well.

 

There is an RNP Coastal track, which is presently being upgraded. But if you come up to the Garawarra cark park there is a good wide (“vehicle/fire trail”) track which goes along the top of an escarpment.

RNP fire trail track.jpg

It runs parallel to the sea – with some spots where you can take a short side track through the bush and take a break while you look out over the sea from on high. Great bit of coastline.

 

One problem I had been pondering during the last time I did this walk arose from a tweet which, in light of the usual news, I had felt compelled to share with others earlier in the week:

 

“To the same extent that we treat our home planet Earth as an inert and lifeless ‘thing’ our own Being is numbed, suppressed and denied.”

 

I have this notion from thinking about First Peoples and animism – that they are truly alive, while modern Western people like myself suffer from a secular flatness of our Being. I sometimes refer to this as ‘the great depression’.

 

My pondering was – “Yes, but where do we go from here?” No answer had emerged.

 

I half know the answer is to be found in the metaphors which are built into our means of interpreting experience –  but you can’t just suddenly just reconnect Being with Cosmos in one orgasmic swoosh (Freud discussed something like this in comparing his position with that of Jung). At least, for people like Freud and me, it seems impossible.

 

During the week I had been lightly researching the notion of ‘existential crisis’. A Wikipedia entry had mentioned that flattened affect was associated with a modern existential crisis.

 

My earlier readings on what we in the modern West categorise as “animism” alerted me to the difference in how life dances for those who relate to life in an ‘animistic’ way.

 

It seems to me that, for those we call ‘animist’ their whole Being is alive – not merely their whole brain – in contrast to the condition of those of us (me in particular) in the modern West where we have developed what is truly a ‘flat’ earth means of interpreting experience.

 

Australia’s First Peoples dance and sing country. Not only that – and this is in contrast with some of the grim non-indigenous ‘cross-cultural’ professionals I have met over the years – First Peoples live with laughter. Anthropologist Robert Tonkinson, writing about Mardudjara people ‘living the Dream in Australia’s deserts’ noted:

 

“The Mardudjara have a keen sense of humour that pervades their activities, including ritual. There are very few occasions so awe-inspiring or momentous in their religious significance that laughter and joking would be thought out of place.” (Tonkinson 1978:100)

 

To me this is the best kind of evidence of both healthy mental functioning and the full operation of our frontal lobes at the cutting edge of creation.

 

It points to a lighter mode of Being. We (casting ourselves as Homo Sapiens) often need to lighten up rather than take things far too seriously. Homo Ludens  – where the sense of play has its place as well – is also on offer..

 

The walk from Era to Otford takes me a couple of hours. Mainly through heathland with its hard and scratchy plants, on the thin soils and sandstone, some large trees e.g. fantastic shaped Angophoras, and hairy coned Banksias.

 

view from rock.jpg

 

As I walk along this track I am frequently aware of my own ignorance regarding my surroundings. I do not know the original names of the plants and animals I come across nor do I have anything much by way of an idea of how these parts of life may have been signified and utilized by the original peoples for this country.

 

I feel that I am, very much, part of an extensive system of false consciousness. And no amount of scientific study of the plants and animals I seek to relate to is going to connect my part of Being to this part of Cosmos.

 

The walk is very pleasant in spring with a lot of Native Irises (Patersonia sericea) out in some patches, and flowering plants such as ‘eggs and bacon’ (yellow – Diliwynia retorta) and Gymea lilies (reddish/crimson  – Doryanthes excesla) to mention a few of the striking features.

 

My dear mother’s name was Iris – meaning the Goddess Rainbow in Ancient Greece. I am the son of a Rainbow.

 

Native Iris pic at http://anpsa.org.au/p-ser.html

 

Down at Era my wife – who, in my view, comes from that country – had been showing our granddaughter, Daphne, some sea anemones in the rock pool at Era.

 

With my daughter, Fuchsia, we were pondering why there is also a plant called anemone. Was it Latin or Greek? I  looked it up when i came home. Wikipedia says that the sea creature in named after the flower – and the flower:

 

“According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Greek anemōnē means “daughter of the wind”, from ánemos “wind” + feminine patronymic suffix -ōnē.[4] The Metamorphoses of Ovid tells that the plant was created by the goddess Venus when she sprinkled nectar on the blood of her dead lover Adonis. “ http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anemone

 

Iris, Fuchsia, Daphne – a floral matriline. Daphne has Greek mythic connections. (Google ‘daphne’)

 

Fuchsia has a very interesting lineage – from German for ‘fox’ – animal species – to human surname ‘Fuchs’ the Doctor who named the flower species ‘Fuchsia’ – to the human first name of my daughter.

 

Myths all over the world relate to the shapes and colours of plants (and much more).

 

Due to the shortcomings (or otherwise) of my own school education I prefer the myths to the Latin-like scientific names, and the memorialising of botanists and colonial figures.

Banksia – after Sir Joseph Banks, wealthy English Gentleman.  

Note that the ‘Royal’  was added to ‘National Park’ after a fleeting visit to the Sydney-Illawarra region by the English Queen? It is full of imperial measure forms of names. Governor Game lookout? Just off Sir Bertrum Stephens Drive? Along from Lady Carrington etc etc.

Even the scientific name for the Native Iris – Patersonia sericea –   refers to another minor colonial figure – Paterson was another NSW Governor. Shortly we will consider a connection between another State Governor – LaTrobe – and an indigenous flowering plant.

We  have a very handy plant identification booklet “Burnum Burnum’s Wildthings Around Sydney”.  Most comprehensive in terms of small entries on the many plants you encounter.

Burnum Burnum, you may recall, was the Koori man who planted the Aboriginal flag in land in the United Kingdom. He had an Anglo-Australian name –  Harry Penrith – which he later replaced with Burnum Burnum. (From his great grandfather according to Wikipedia)

This naming business is very much part of a kind of conceptual framework which we take for granted but which may not serve our deeper interests – if we come to find it more like a constraining straight-jacket than an enabling means of relating to the rest of life.

Burnum Burnum’s name is on the booklet, and he provides a brief account (pp8-9) of Aboriginal legends regarding the Waratah and the Gymea lily but there remains a long way to go regarding a full account of the plants – as I shall try to tease out.

These accounts appear similar to those published elsewhere (Rolland Robinson; Michael Organ’s compilation, some of the work of Reed). I need to get a bit more systematic in learning these things, but connecting with country may require more than a book-based academic approach.

For the moment, our Subaru Forester is packed ready to set out to Central Australia in the morning to follow the lead to Eremophila – desert loving plants.

First main camp stop, Lake Mungo – where something of an ancient spirit of this land may be encountered.

Bruce Reyburn

Friday 19 May 2017

Self-learning exercise – google search ‘eremophila’